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1.7.5 Appendix - contradiction matrix parameters 1-5

Aggiornamento: 8 nov 2021

1 Segmentation

A. Divide an object into independent parts:

■ Different focal length lenses for a camera

■ Multi - pin connectors

■ Multiple pistons in an internal combustion engine

■ Multi-engined aircraft

■ Bullets/guns

■ Compound eyes

■ Somites

■ Bullet proof glass – use many smaller sections together for a windscreen – so if bullet hits only a small section is damaged

B. Make an object sectional – easy to assemble or disassemble:

■ Rapid - release fasteners for bicycle saddle/wheel/etc

■ Quick disconnect joints in plumbing and hydraulic systems

■ Single fastener V - band clamps on flange joints

■ Loose - leaf paper in a ring binder

■ Bailey bridge/bicycle chain

C. Increase the degree of fragmentation or segmentation:

■ Multiple control surfaces on aerodynamic structures

■ 16 and 24 valve versus 8 valve internal combustion engines

■ Multi - zone combustion system

■ Build up a component from layers (e.g. stereo - lithography, welds, etc)

2 Taking Out or Extraction

A. Extract the disturbing part or property from an object:

■ Non - smoking areas in restaurants or in railway carriages

■ Air conditioning in the room where you want it with the noise of the system outside the room

■ (The contradiction here is noise vs coolness - the cooler it gets the noisier it gets - this solves the contradiction by putting the noise elsewhere)

B. Extract the only necessary part (or property) of an object

■ Scarecrow

■ Economy class on planes (travel but no frills)

■ Sound of a barking dog (with no dog) as a burglar alarm

■ Sealed windows with no openings (This involves understanding all the functionality and selecting only what you want - e.g. windows provide ventilation and light – with air conditioning you may not need windows which open)

3 Local Quality

A. Change of an object’s structure from uniform to non-uniform

■ Reduce drag on aerodynamic surfaces by adding riblets or ‘shark - skin’ protrusions

■ Drink cans shaped to facilitate stable stacking

■ Moulded hand grips on tools

■ Material surface treatments/coatings – plating, erosion/corrosion protection, case hardening, non - stick, etc

B. Change an action or an external environment (or external influence) from uniform to non - uniform

■ Introduce turbulent flow around an object to alter heat transfer properties

■ Use a gradient instead of constant temperature, density, or pressure

■ Take account of extremes of weather conditions when designing outdoor systems

■ Strobe lighting

C. Make each part of an object function in conditions most suitable for its operation

■ Freezer compartment in refrigerator

■ Different zones in the combustion system of an engine

■ Night - time adjustment on a rear - view mirror

■ Lunch box with special compartments for hot and cold solid foods and for liquids

D. Make each part of an object fulfil a different and/or complementary useful function

■ Swiss - Army knife

■ Combined can and bottle opener

■ Sharp and blunt end of a drawing pin

■ Rubber on the end of a pencil

■ Hammer with nail puller

4 Asymmetry

A. Change the shape or properties of an object from symmetrical to asymmetrical

■ Asymmetrical funnel allows higher flow - rate than normal funnel

■ Put a flat spot on a cylindrical shaft to attach a locking feature

■ Oval and complex shaped O-rings

■ Coated glass or paper

■ Electric Plug

■ Introduction of angled or scarfed geometry features on component edges

■ Cutaway on a guitar improves access to high notes

■ Spout of a jug

■ Cam

■ Ratchet

■ Aerofoil – asymmetry generates lift.

■ Eccentric drive

■ Keys

B. Change the shape of an object to suit external asymmetries (e.g. ergonomic features)

■ Human - shaped seating, etc

■ Design for left and right handed users

■ Finger and thumb grip features on objects

■ Spectacles

■ Car steering system compensates for camber in road

■ Wing design compensated for asymmetric flow produced by propeller

■ Turbomachinery design for boundary layer flows ( ‘ end - bend ’ )

C. If an object is asymmetrical, increase its degree of asymmetry

■ Use of variable control surfaces to alter lift properties of an aircraft wing

■ Special connectors with complex shape/pin configurations to ensure correct assembly

■ Introduction of several different measurement scales on a ruler

5 Merging/Consolidation

A. Bring closer together (or merge) identical or similar objects or operations in space

■ Automatic rifle/machine gun

■ Multi - colour ink cartridges

■ Multi - blade razors

■ Bi - focal lens spectacles

■ Double/triple glazing

■ Strips of staples

■ Catamaran/trimara

B. Make objects or operations contiguous or parallel; bring them together in time

■ Combine harvester

■ Manufacture cells

■ Grass collector on a lawn - mower

■ Mixer taps

■ Pipe - lined computer processors perform different stages in a calculation simultaneously ■ Vector processors perform the same process on several sets of data in a single pass Fourier analysis – integration of many sine curves


TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving, First Edition. Karen Gadd.

© 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-470-74188-7

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